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History

Fall 2019

Traffic signals: A brief history

Before automobiles even swarmed over the roads and streets, there was a need to control traffic to avoid accidents and keep vehicles moving smoothly.

The current systems have developed over more than a century, and they’re poised to change once again as vehicles become more connected and traffic control moves toward AI and complex computer-driven systems.

 

A signal history

December 10, 1868 — The first gas-lit traffic lights were installed outside the Houses of Parliament in London. Proposed by British railway engineer J.P. Knight to control the traffic of horse carriages, gas lights were manually controlled by a police officer using semaphore arms. … » More …

Bison (Photo iStock)
Winter 2018

Bison

The day the bison herd swam across the river says it all.

About 80 of the legendary mammals, known for hardiness and stubbornness, decided to cross the half-mile wide Pend Oreille River in 1994—bulls, cows, and even calves—and all survived the crossing, recalls Ray Entz, natural resources director of the Kalispel Tribe of Indians in northeast Washington.

That same rugged strength of the wooly North American bovines—whether you call them bison or buffalo—helped the entire resilient species survive. Although bison are now the national mammal of the United States, they once balanced on the cliff of extinction … » More …